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What is an antique map?

As far as we have been told that ancient Greek philosophers were the first scientists who gained the first serious steps in the field of map. Anaximander created the first known map of the world in 610-546 BC.  Hekateios of Miletus composed the first geographical book of the world in 5th century BC too. Likewise, Claudius Ptolemaeus (Ptolemy) of Alexandria, a famous mathematician, astronomer, geographer and astrologer, played an important role among ancient geographers. The Ptolemy world map is a map of the known world to Western society in the 2nd century A.D. It was based on the description contained in Ptolemy`s  book "Geographia", written circa 150. Although authentic maps have never been found, the "Geographia" contains thousands of references to various parts of the old world, with coordinates for most, which allowed cartographers, people making geographical maps, to reconstruct Ptolemy's world view when the manuscript was re-discovered around 2nd  century AD. Perhaps the most significant contribution of Ptolemy and his maps is the first uses of longitudinal and latitudinal lines and the specifying of terrestrial locations by celestial observations regarding the idea of a global coordinate system in his book of  Geographia, composed of  eight volumes.
Due to the fact that there only remained  some fragments of  his "Geographia", unfortunately, it is not certain either maps in his book or the book itself have completely been written by himself or by successive geographers taking into account his knowledge for the`1 map. His work, known as Ptolemy's world map, is supposed to including 26 regions of the ancient world along with little maps.
It is told that Mehmet II, the conquror, after the fall of Istanbul (Constantinopolis) had a sample print of Ptolemy`s  book of "Geographia" amoung the books remaining from the libriary of Byzantine Empire. Since several parts of this were missing along with Ptolemy`s world map, he requested from Amuratzes, Byzantine mathematician and astrologer to create a map according the data and the methods Ptolemy sed.

Of these engraved maps, there was en egraved map of Anatolia (Asia Minor-Turkey) too. It is known as the first engraved map of Istanbul (Constantinopolis) that was created by Buondelmonte, theologian and humanist of Florence. The map printed in 1422 was displaying the appearance the city of Constantinopolis in a perspective order. As there appeared profound changes in terms of use of compass, construction  and dizayn of sound ships in the fielf of maritime, it enabled people to discover the new world and create the new world`s map based on scientific principles had been made since the time of Ptolemy.

In 1507, Martin Waldseemüller produced a globular world map and a large 12-panel world wall map (Universalis Cosmographia) it is not the first map showing North and South America seperated from Asia but also it is the first map bearing the first use of the name "America". Furthermore, he produced another book including samples of Ptolemy`s 27 maps and his 20 maps of the new world. Of the maps of Waldseemüller, there was a map of Anatolia as well.

Venetian painter and- engraver Vavassore`s "Universalis Orbis Descripto", printed in 1558 composed a decent example of the map of Istanbul in projection too. In 1574, German cartographers Braun and Hogenberg, whose book of "Civitates Orbis Terrarum" was printed in Köln and Sebastian Münster`s "Cosmographia Universalis", printed in 1544 are  major works in the field of map. Gerard Mercator was the first to use the term of  "Atlas" in his book printed in 1569. There are maps of Anatolia and Ottoman Empire in the book of Gerard Mercator. It was a turning point in the field of map when Felemenk Abraham Ortelius published "Theatrum Orbis Terrarum" composing atlas of the world in 1570. The atlas of Felemenk Abraham Ortelius is also considered as the first map created with modern date and knowledge. As result of the fact that the maps of Ortelius are not only indispensable part of  collections of his age but also indispensable part of modern collections. The atlas of Ortelius were printed at several times and translated into several languages. Likewise, some of his maps are depicting Thrace, Black Sea (Pontus Euxinus), Anatolia (Asia Minor) and Ottoman Empire.
In the Age of Exploration, from the 15th century to the 17th century, Holland discovered the continent Australia and gained the control of sea trade of the world. Meanwhile she took the control of colonization movements of the period. Due to being the solo ruler of the international maritimes, Amsterdam and Anvers became the center of map production in all respects.
European cartographers(map-makers) both copied earlier maps (some of which had been passed down for centuries) and drew their own based on explorers' observations and new surveying techniques. Especially Dutch cartographers like Hondius, Blaeu, Jansson, De Wit, Dancerts  and Van Keulen turned out to be the prominent producers for atlas of the world, maritime maps, city maps. Of these maps created by these European cartographers, the map of Anatolia, Ottoman Empire, Thrace or Aegean Sea is also depicted on these important maps.
At the end of 17th century France became the leader map producer and with the order of the King, French cartographers like Sanson, Del Isle, D'Anville developed scientific techniques to produce accurate maps of the period. Sanson was one of the most important French cartographers of his period. After his dead, his friend Jaillot and his son-in-law Du Val completed the unfinished maps of Sanson.

Coronelli, one the genius cartographers of his age, live in Italy in the second half of 17th century. Being official cartographer of the Vatican, Coronelli established "Academia Cosmografica degli Argonauti", the first geographical institution. He also worked on the most decorative map of Bosphorus in this printed atlas.

In Germany, the printing of atlas started in 1700s. Seutter established a press in Augsburg like his master Homann in Nürnberg, who educated among Flemish cartographers and established a press in Nürnberg. Both printed decent maps of Ottoman Empire, Anatolia and Istanbul too. After the death of Homann, his press was firstly administered by his son and then by his descendents. The Bosphorus map, printed by Homann` s descendents, is the most interesting of its kind as it has been printed with the technique of feet, measuring the land by foot.

In 18th century, cartography was instituted as a modern science. Due to advance of new maps, created with less artistic details, publishers started to print simple and cheep maps with the beginning of 1750.
Up to 19th century Western cartographers printed map of Turkey in the West. In cartography, technology has continually changed in order to meet the demands of new generations of mapmakers and map users.
The first maps were manually constructed with brushes and parchment; therefore, varied in quality and were limited in distribution. The advent of magnetic devices, such as the compass and much later, magnetic storage devices, allowed for the creation of far more accurate maps and the ability to store and manipulate them digitally.

Advances in mechanical devices such as the printing press, quadrant and vernier, allowed for the mass production of maps and the ability to make accurate reproductions from more accurate data. Optical technology, such as the telescope, sextant and other devices that use telescopes, allowed for accurate surveying of land and the ability of mapmakers and navigators to find their latitude by measuring angles to the North Star at night or the sun at noon.
Advances in photochemical technology, such as the lithographic and photochemical processes, have allowed for the creation of maps that have fine details, do not distort in shape and resist moisture and wear. This also eliminated the need for engraving, which further shortened the time it takes to make and reproduce maps.
Advances in electronic technology in the 20th century ushered in another revolution in cartography. Ready availability of computers and peripherals such as monitors, plotters, printers, scanners (remote and document) and analytic stereo plotters, along with computer programs for visualization, image processing, spatial analysis, and database management, have democratized and greatly expanded the making of maps. The ability to superimpose spatially located variables onto existing maps created new uses for maps and new industries to explore and exploit these potentials
The maps printed by Westerners regarding Turkey are mostly about Istanbul (Constantinople/Constantinopolis), Bosphorus, Aegean Sea (Archipel), The Sea of Marmara (Mer de Marmora), Black Sea (Pontus Euxinus/Mer Noire), Dardanelles (Hellespont), Anatolia (Asia Minor/Natolia) and Ottoman Empire(Turcicum Imperium).


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